A skin lesion is any modification in your skin's typical appearance. A skin lesion can appear anywhere on the body and can cover a little or huge region. Skin lesions can be single or many, localized to a single part of the body or widely dispersed. Rashes, cysts, pus-filled sacs, blisters, swelling, discolorations, lumps, hardening, or any other change in or on your skin are examples of skin lesions. Lesions on the skin can be caused by a variety of factors, ranging from something as minor as a scrape to something as dangerous as skin cancer.
A few lesions on the skin may not be serious. But, when a new lump forms, it may be hazardous. It is critical to understand the appearance of the most frequent skin lesions so that you can detect them and avoid becoming overly concerned. If you still need help, do not hesitate in reaching out to your dermatologist. Some of the most common types of skin lesions include:
- Seborrheic Keratosis: Seborrheic keratosis, often known as senile warts, are non-cancerous lesions. The patches or lesions have a slight elevation. They have a scaly or waxy texture and are light brown, tan, or black. Except for the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands, senile warts can occur anywhere on the body.
- Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra: Dermatosis Papulosa is a skin condition that mostly affects people with a darker complexion. It usually begins in adolescence. The papules on the skin are little and darkly pigmented blemishes.
- Stucco Keratosis: Stucco Keratosis is another non-cancerous skin condition. Stucco keratosis lesions are usually white or grey and are quite tiny and commonly found on the feet or ankles.
- Skin Tags: Acrochordons, often known as skin tags, are quite frequent. Skin tags are harmless skin growths. The tiny papule of the skin tag will protrude from a little bit of flesh, giving it the appearance of a tag.
- Cherry Angiomas: Cherry Angiomas develop when the capillaries near the skin's surface become clogged with blood vessels. This results in the formation of crimson papules.
- Dermatofibroma: Dermatofibroma is a skin tumour that has a round shape, is firm, and is reddish-purple or brown. It is most commonly found on the legs.
- Solar Lentigo: Solar lentigo is a darker area of skin and is harmless. It is caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, which induces localised melanocyte proliferation and melanin build-up within skin cells (keratinocytes). Solar lentigos, also known as lentigines, are quite common in people over the age of 40.
- Sebaceous Hyperplasia: Sebaceous Hyperplasia is a condition in which the sebaceous gland of the skin gets enlarged. Small papules with a centre indent characterise this disease. The papules are usually the same or yellowish hue as the skin.
- Epidermal Inclusion Cyst: EICs are a common form of a cutaneous cyst. This cyst develops in the hair follicles rather than the oil glands. When this develops, it's frequently misdiagnosed as an infection of some sort. There is no need for therapy if the cyst is asymptomatic. Excision can be used to eliminate the cyst if desired.
- Lipoma: Lipoma is a type of skin disease that occurs when fat gathers beneath the skin. The lesion will be mild and will cease developing once it reaches a few millimetres in diameter. Lipoma is treated via elective surgery.
Types of Skin Lesions- Primary
Primary lesions on the skin might be present at birth or develop over the course of your life. They can be linked to a specific cause or be a response to either internal or external factors. The types of primary lesion include:
- Bulla: A vesicle packed with fluid that is larger than 0.5 centimetres (cm) or 1/5 of an inch.
- Papule: Papules are elevated lesions that frequently appear in groups. A plaque is a collection of papules or nodules. Psoriasis is characterised by plaques. Papules can appear as a result of viral illnesses like measles or mosquito bites.
- Patch: A non-palpable, flat lesion with a different hue and a diameter of more than 0.5 cm is known as a patch.
- Pustules: Pustules are pus-filled sores on the skin. Pustules include boils and abscesses, for example.
- Wheals: Wheals are swollen, elevated bumps or plaques that occur on the skin unexpectedly. An allergic reaction is the most common reason. For instance, hives (also known as urticaria), bug bites, and so forth.
- Birthmark: The most frequent type of primary skin lesion is a birthmark. Moles, port-wine stains, nevi, and other similar conditions are among them.
- Cyst: A cyst is a raised, confined region of skin that is filled with liquid or semi-solid fluid.
- Macule: Another type of skin lesion are Macules that are small, flat sores on the skin. They're tiny (less than a centimetre in diameter) and brownish or reddish. Macules are freckles and flat moles, for example. In measles, a macular rash is prevalent.
- Blisters: Blisters are small, clear-fluid-filled skin lesions that are less than half a centimetre in diameter. Small blisters are known as vesicles, whereas larger blisters are known as bullae. Burns (including sunburns), viral infections (herpes zoster), friction from shoes or clothing, bug bites, pharmacological responses, and other factors can produce blisters.
- Plaque: Plaque is a firm, rough, and flat-topped plaque that is greater than 1-2 cm in diameter and elevated like a papule.
- Vesicle: A vesicle is a small, fluid-filled blister that is smaller than 0.5 cm in diameter.
- Nodules: Nodules are elevated lesions on the skin that are smaller than two millimetres in diameter and can be soft or hard. Neurofibromatosis and leprosy are two disorders that produce nodules.
- Telangiectasia: This type of skin lesion is characterised by clusters of 'spider veins,' which are small blood vessels that form red lines on the skin.
- Tumor: A tumor that is greater than 0.5 cm in diameter but looks like a nodule. They can be either benign or cancerous.
Types of Skin Lesions- Secondary
Secondary skin lesions form after original skin lesions or as a result of an injury and become inflamed and irritating. The following are the most common examples of secondary lesions on the skin:
- Atrophy: In this condition, the skin becomes paper-thin, translucent, and wrinkled, usually as a result of the use of a topical medication such as topical steroids.
- Crust: A crust, also known as a scab, is a type of skin lesion that develops on top of a scratched, damaged, or irritated original skin lesion. It is made up of dried secretions from the skin.
- Erosion: Erosion is the loss of the epidermis, which appears moist and shiny.
- Excoriation: Linear scratches that result in epidermal loss are known as excoriation.
- Fissure: Linear cracks in the skin that continue deeper than the epidermis into the dermis are called fissures. Excessive dryness can cause them, which can be unpleasant.
- Maceration: When skin is exposed to water or fluid for an extended period, it becomes wet, wrinkled, and lighter in color. This can happen as a result of leaking wounds caused by poor wound management.
- Scales: Scales are clumps of skin cells that pile up and break off the surface of the skin. Patches are common in psoriasis, and removing them causes bleeding.
- Ulcers: An ulcer is a break in the skin's or mucosa's continuity. Infections or trauma can create skin ulcers. Ulcers are more likely to develop if you have poor blood circulation, diabetes, smoke, or are bedridden.
- Skin atrophy: Skin atrophy develops when the skin becomes thin and wrinkled in some regions. This type of skin lesion can be caused by regular use of steroid creams, radiation therapy, or poor blood circulation.
Difference between Malignant Skin Lesion and Benign Skin Lesion?
What is a Malignant Skin Lesion?
By definition, a malignant skin lesion is skin cancer. Keratinocyte carcinoma and melanoma are the two most common kinds of skin cancer. Skin cancer can manifest itself in a variety of ways, including fast-growing lesions on the skin, changes in the color or size of a pre-existing lesion, or a scabbing sore that does not heal with time.
Appearance of Malignant Skin Lesion
Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are two types of keratinocyte carcinoma that emerge from skin cells called keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinoma can look like a pearly, flesh-colored skin lesion with telangiectasias (superficial blood vessels) on top. Basal cell carcinoma can appear as a scaling plaque or a non-healing sore that bleeds or forms a crust. Squamous cell carcinoma, on the other hand, is typically characterised by a thick, crusty sore with a reddish, inflammatory base that can ulcerate (look like an open sore) and bleed. Melanoma develops from melanocytes, which are skin cells.
What is Benign Skin Lesion?
A benign skin lesion is a noncancerous growth, tumor, or anomaly that can appear anywhere on the body. Depending on the source and tissue of origin, benign lesions can appear in a variety of ways. Most melanocytic nevi, also known as Moles, Seborrheic Keratoses, Skin Tags, Cherry Angiomas, and Lipomas are examples of benign skin lesions. Unless they create symptoms like discomfort or itching, these lesions are usually harmless and don't require treatment. Unless they create symptoms like discomfort or itching, these lesions are usually harmless and don't require treatment.
Appearance of Malignant Skin Lesion
In contrast to malignant skin lesions, benign skin lesions are usually symmetrical, well-circumscribed, uniform in appearance, and remain stable or increase slowly over time. Premalignant lesions, such as Actinic Keratosis or Lentigo Maligna, should be recognised from benign lesions since they have a higher risk of evolving into various types of skin cancer. Long-term unprotected sun exposure causes both Actinic Keratosis And Lentigo Maligna. Actinic keratosis manifests as dry, scaly patches of skin on sun-exposed areas such as the nose and forehead, whereas Lentigo Maligna manifests as localised dark-brown or black lesions on the face and trunk.