Skin discoloration on the face is striking because it differs from a person's natural skin tone. They can be a different color, such as red, grey, brown, black, blue, or white. Let's have a look at some of the reasons behind facial discoloration:
Vitiligo is a skin disorder that causes pale white spots to appear on different parts of the body. The face, lips, fingertips, and pressure points are the most typically impacted locations. Melanin cells die or stop working, resulting in this disease. It's an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system assaults the body's healthy tissues. Although the skin patches caused by vitiligo are not hazardous, they may indicate the possibility of other autoimmune conditions in the same person. Thus they need to be evaluated and followed up.
Melasma, also known as chloasma, is characterized by dark, uneven, and blotchy skin in places that are frequently exposed to sunlight. These usually appear on the face- forehead, nose, cheeks, chin, and over the arms. Although they are not life-threatening, the facial discoloration can be difficult to deal with. It occurs when the skin produces too much melanin, and it is more common in those with darker skin tones, pregnant women, and those on certain medication.
#3 Tinea Versicolor
Tinea versicolor, also known as pityriasis Versicolor, is a yeast infection-related skin pigmentation condition. This may cause either light or dark patches on the skin. They may occur on the face, neck, chest, upper arms, and back. The infection is mild but is communicable. It can be treated easily if identified early.
Rosacea is an inflammatory skin condition that mostly affects the face and can lead to skin discoloration on the face in the form of red patches. The nose and cheeks are mostly affected. But at times it can also affect the eyes. It is especially common in persons with light skin tones. Although the exact reason for rosacea is unknown, some studies believe it may be induced by environmental factors. Rosacea can flare up at any time, especially during times of stress, and it usually follows a cyclical pattern. Frequent redness and visible blood vessels on the face, acne, and dry, itchy, swollen, red eyes are just a few of the symptoms of rosacea. This condition requires active management.
#5 Cancer Treatment
After surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, skin discoloration might occur. It could also be a side effect of pain medicine or an allergic response to the injection. Your skin could get bruised, red, or pigmented. When you're through with therapy, these alterations normally go away.
Freckles are multiple pigmented spots that are equally distributed and are relatively uniform in size and color. They are genetically determined and most commonly involve the nose, cheeks, shoulders, and arms. These spots appear in childhood and increase in number in adults. But they seem to regress during old age. They can, however, be treated for cosmetic reasons.
Birthmarks are a broad term that may involve red, brown, or white-colored skin patches. Most of them are present at birth, but some develop only later in life and can cause confusion. These are mostly harmless, though some may rarely turn cancerous. If you notice a sudden increase in size or further darkening of the patch, you should seek medical attention immediately.
Apart from the above-mentioned causes, some other reasons that can lead to facial discoloration include:
- Healing after a rash or burn or infection or injury
- Hormonal changes
- Skin inflammation
When to see a doctor?
Skin discoloration does not always require treatment but you should seek the advice of a dermatologist when:
- Any skin sore that changes shape, size, or color is observed
- Persistent, inexplicable darkening or lightening of the skin is experienced
- It is giving you physical or emotional suffering
If your dermatologist feels an underlying issue is causing your facial discoloration, you will be prompted to get diagnostic testing to figure out the cause for the same. These tests may involve the following:
- Blood test to look for derangement of any blood parameters or hormones that could cause skin color changes
- Examination to rule out any infection, inflammation, or malignancy
- Taking a small sample of the afflicted skin and examining the same under a microscope to detect the presence of abnormal cells.
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